Hospiten tells us about anesthesia in 10 FAQ’s
What is anesthesia?
Anesthesia is a reversible state in which the transmission of stimuli, their integration and possible response by the central and peripheral nervous system is inhibited.
How many types of anesthesia are there?
They can be classified according to the target organ of action. General anesthesia and sedation are used on the brain, spinal anesthesia including intradural and epidural anesthesia is used on the spinal cord, and local/topical anesthesia is used on the peripheral nerve fibers.
Is the anesthetic something we can choose?
The anesthesiologist is the medical practitioner who recommends one type of anesthesia over another, taking into account numerous factors including the type of intervention, the area, the duration, and, of course, the patient’s medical history,
What does pre-anesthesia serve as?
We evaluate the patient’s current pharmaceutical treatment, personal medical history, and how these factors are affecting the patient’s health.
To reduce potential hazards associated with surgery, some medications may need to be changed or started. Moreover, the airway is evaluated, and perioperative suggestions are provided.
Another crucial goal is to tell the patient about the available anesthetic alternatives, allay any concerns, and obtain their informed permission.
What are the main risks?
Although modern anesthetic used in hospitals is relatively safe and we have tools and medications to deal with any undesired situations, it is true that there are risks involved. They are described in detail in the informed consent, however, it is important to understand that these are rare occurrences.
What is the anesthesiologist’s role in the procedure?
The anesthesiologist is the doctor in charge of the patient’s intraoperative care from the start to finish of the procedure. Vital signs are monitored for this reason, and anesthetic-inducing medications are given as needed.
What is the procedure like for each type of anesthesia?
The anesthetic machine or respirator, the medications to be used, and the airway equipment to be utilized must all be readied for general anesthesia. After being “taken to sleep” using intravenous medication, the patient is intubated (a small tube is usually inserted between the mouth and the trachea), and the patient is then attached to a respirator.
While using spinal anesthesia, the procedure material is set up, the patient is positioned as needed for the puncture (either sitting or lying on their side with their legs extended), local anesthetic is used, and finally, the injection is given.
In locoregional anesthesia, a local anesthetic is injected into the skin close to the surgical incision site or near the nerves that detect the sensitivity of the area to be operated on (identified by ultrasound vision and/or neurostimulation).
In situations where the patient is awake, medicine is typically given. Sedative drugs are typically given to patients who are awake in order to create a mood of comfort and tranquility.
Could it have no effect?
After appropriately using a localized procedure, we occasionally witness just partial effects of anesthetic or its absence because there is no such thing as 100% effectiveness in medicine (not so in the case of general anesthesia). The procedure can be repeated in these circumstances or switched to general anesthesia.
Why is fast required?
Drugs that depress the central nervous system can change the cough reflex, which permits us to cough up potentially hazardous substances from our airways. Due to the patient’s continued lying down, stomach contents may become mobile and open the airway. Moreover, fasting is advised because anesthetics and analgesics frequently cause nausea and vomiting.
What happens after anesthesia is administered?
The patient is then ready for the surgical operation after the anesthetic has been administered and its effectiveness has been evaluated. This includes arranging the people and the necessary materials, as well as placing the patient and preparing the operating area. The surgical operation is then carried out.
Regardless of the type of anesthesia used, nausea and vomiting can happen, albeit they do so less frequently now since the antiemetic medication is typically given preventively.
Pain is a result of the surgical operation and not a side effect of anesthesia. To try to manage or diminish it as much as possible with medications, infiltrations, or nerve blocks is one of the anesthesiologist’s tasks.